– רדופליקציה בטורקית – פונולוגיה לצ’אק- turkish-phonology-reduplication


Turkish consonants (in IPA):

Glottal Velar Palatal Post-alveolar Alveolar labio-dental Bilabial (1)
? g k ɟ c d t b p plosives
h F Z S z s v f fricative
n m nasal
dZ tS affricate
R tap
j approximant
l ɫ lateral

Turkish vowels:

(2) high high mid Mid-low
rounded unrounded rounded unrounded
front y 

 

i (i:) 2 e (e:)
central-back u (u:) 1 

 

o A (A:)

syllable structure:

(3) initial midial final
V acaba [adZa-ba] 

‘one wonders’

CV Kara [ka-Ra] 

‘black’

Kalabalik [ka-la-ba-l1k] ‘crowded’ Yedi [ye-di]  

‘seven’ or ‘7’

CV:(C) Mavi [ma:-vi]  

‘blue’

Sa’at [sa:t] 

‘hour’ or ‘clock’

Matba’a [mat-ba:] ‘press’
VC Ev [ev] 

‘home’

CVC Fazla [faz-la]  

‘excessively’

Ejderhan [eZ-de4-han] ‘dragon’ ÇekiÇ [tSe-kitS] ‘hammer’
VCC aşk [aSk] 

love”

CVCC türk [tyRk]  

‘turkish’

CCVC spor [spor]  

‘sport’

*all examples are taken from Goksel and Kerslake (2005).

1.

In this paper I will describe the emphatic reduplication phnomenon in modern Turkish. The emphatic reduplication is a prefix added to adjectives. its function is mostly as a modifier (very/really). Some of the reduplicated adjectives became “phrases” and therefore lost its emphatic meaning, but the basic function is to modifie the adjectives.stems that begin with a vowel, their prefix consists of the vowel’s reduplication followed by a /p/ as in: ince ‘thin’ –> ip-ince ‘very thin’ . Stems that begin with a consonant and a vowel (CV), their prefix consists of the first CV’s reduplication followed by either /p/, /m/, /s/, or /r/, (see table 4 below).

(4) /s/ /p/ /r/ /m/
/b/ Bes-belli [bes.beli] ‘very obviouse’ Bom-boş [bom.boS] ‘completly empty’
/dZ/ Cis-civik [dZis.dZi.vik] ‘very squishy’ Cap-canli [dZap.dZan.li] ‘very live’
/d/ Dos-doğru [dos.do:Ru] ‘very true’ 

 

Dop-dolu [dop.do.lu] ‘very full’ Dim-dik [dim.dik] ‘very eract’
/g/ Gep-genÇ [gep.gen tS] ‘very late’
/tS/ Çep-Çevre [tSep.tSev.re] ‘all around’ Çar-Çabuk [tSaR.tSbuk] ‘very fast’
/k/ Kos-kocaman [kos.ko.dZa.man] ‘really huge’ Kip-kirmizi [kip.kiR.mi.zi] ‘very red’
/m/ Mas-mavi [mas.ma:.vi] ‘very blue’
/p/ Pes-pembe [pes.pem.be] ‘bright pink’ Per-perişan [peR.periSan] ‘in a very miserable’
/s/ Sap-sari  

[sap.sa.Ri] ‘bright yellow’

Ser-sefil [seR.sefil] ‘very miserable’ Sim-siyah [sim.si.jah] ‘totally black’
/t/ Tas-tamam [tas.ta.mam] ‘very OK’ Tertemiz [teR.temiz] ‘very clean
/y/ Yus-yumru [yus.yumRu] ‘very rounded’ Yap-yalniz [yap.yal.niz] ‘all alone’ Yem-yeşil [jep.je.Sil] ‘very green’

*all examples are taken from Goksel and Kerslake (2005).

1.1

Most of the reduplicative prefixes are consisted of /p/( in addition to the reduplicative CV from the stem)/ if the stem’s initial is labial (/b/, /p/, /m/) or /t/ the /p/ in the prefix is replaced with either /s/, /r/ or /m/. /r/ has the least cases of appearing in the prefix. /s/ and /m/ are the better option for when /p/ is not applicable in the prefix. /s/ takes the cases of when the initial syllable of the stem is CV while /m/ takes the stems which has the CVC initial syllables. /s/ takes the cases when the first C is /m/ and /m/ takes the cases when the first C is /s/. In case that the CVC’s last C is /m/ the prefix consists of /s/ and when the CVC’s last C is /s/ the prefix consists of /m/.

1.2

in some cases V is added at the end of the prefix, as in: gündüz –> güp-e-gündüz ‘in broad daylight. Other cases adds aVC in addition to the CVC of the prefix such as: parça –> par-am-parça ‘shreded into pieces‘ and çiplak –> çir-il-çiplak ‘completely naked‘. These cases are beyond the scope of this paper along with the analysis of the reduplicated /R/. these cases are irregular and will not behave according to the constraints i’m offering.

According to Wedel (1999), /p/ is the elsewhere affixal consonant chosen for the reduplicant’s coda. The reduplicant will change its coda consonant only when CV or CVC onset is in the base. When reduplicating a V or VC onset bases, like :

‘indZe ‘thin‘ –> ip-indZe ‘very thin‘, /p/ will be chosen. For the rest of the cases I will try to suggest these next constraints.

2. constraints:

the input of the emphatic reduplication is:

[[[RED +[p,m,s]] +base] or [[[C1V +[C2]] +C1V/.C2]

RED Is the first CV of the base plus one of the 3 consonants. In each tableau I will only run 3 candidates using the 3 Consonants.

2.1 (*shared place): C2 in the reduplicant and C1 in the base must not have a common place of articulation.

(*shared manner): C2 in the reduplicant And C1 in the base must not have a common manner of articulation.

(5)

/ba+ [p,m,s]+baSka/ *repeat *shared place *shared manner
a. bambaSka *
b. bapbaSka * *!
c. basbaSka *!

/ baSka/ ‘different

both *shared contraints are violated by (b). (c) does not violate *shared but still (a) is chosen because *repeat is more highly ranked and C2 in the base /S/ and C2 in the reduplicant /s/ are too similar and will create a semi-repeat.

2.2

(*CiCi): no geminate, C2 in the reduplicant And C1 in the base must not be identical.

(6)

/mo +[p,m,s] +mor/ *CiCi *shared place
a. mommor *!
b. mopmor *!
c. mosmor

/mor/ ‘purple

(a) is violating *CiCi creating a geminate. (b) is violating *shared place. Only (c ) is not violating any constraint and there for chosen.

2.3

(*repeat): the initial CVC of the base must not be the same CVC of the reduplicantC2 in both the reduplicant And the base can not even have a common mannar of place of articulation like:

/s/ and /S/. Must not repeat the same sequence of the base’s CVC, even when C2 in the base is not the coda but the onset of the next CV/CVC.

(7)

/pe +[p,m,s]+ pembe/ *CiCi *repeat
a. peppembe *!
b. pempembe *!
c. pespembe

/pembe/ ‘pink’

(a) is not chosen because of the geminate /p/ created. (b) is ruled out by *repeat and the optimal candidate is (c ) being the non labial option /s/.

2.4

adjectives like ‘miskin‘ [helpless] and ‘mest‘ [delighted] are being reduplicated with the elsewhere /p/

tablau (8) shows that *CiCi and *repeat are ranked higher than *shared place. The ranking of *repeat and *CiCi is not clear.

(8)

/mi +[p,m,s] +miskin/ *CiCi *repeat *shared place
a. mimmiskin *!
b. mipmiskin *
c. mismiskin *!

2 thoughts on “– רדופליקציה בטורקית – פונולוגיה לצ’אק- turkish-phonology-reduplication

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